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Chapter One: Introduction Nigeria’s vision 20:2020 indicates that science and in particular biological knowledge holds the key to attainment of national goals, which include food and security, eradication of child mortality, and reduction of the spread of HIV/AIDS among others. However, the dwindling poor academic performance of students in Biology makes the realization of such goals unrealistic. The causes of their poor performance are linked to many factors including home environment, peer pressure, culture, socio-economic status, etc. Each of these factors has a magnitude and direction. The summation of these factors drives the student in a particular direction. The student will move in the direction of these summed factors although, many instances this direction is not supportive of reaching the educational objectives the student needs to meet. If the teacher is aware of these factors upon the student, knows the educational objectives for the student, the teacher can apply influential/motivational forces to assist the student in obtaining the educational goals/objectives for the student’s success. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to examine how the management of these factors affects teacher-student relationship in schools. This study focuses on the following objectives. 1) To examine the degree to which the relationship between the teacher and student impact student academic achievement 2) To discuss the degree to which the student’s perception of respect and care impact student academic achievement 3) To analyse the extent which the teacher’s cultural connectedness to students impact the teacher-student relationship 4) To investigate the degree to which teacher’s expectation impact academic achievement Educators across the nation are entrenched in determining ways to close the achievement gap. If the findings of this study show that a positive relationship accelerates student academic achievement, additional access to pathways of success will be available for all members of the educational community. Current areas of focus on instructional delivery and strategies that engage learners are often devoid of an emphasis on the relationships between students and teachers. If the findings of this study validate the importance of student-teacher relationships, a paradigm-shift could be afforded to educators in the on-going journey to close the achievement gap. Chapter Two: Literature Review This chapter reviews literature on the effects of poor teacher – student relationship on academic performance of biology students in Nigeria. The literature is presented under sub-headings derived from the study’s research questions. Gaps to be filled by the present study are highlighted. Chapter